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Best Training institutes ,Computer education and Coaching classes in Hadapsar as of July 17, 2018

 

 

training institutes Auriga Info Systems
Hadapsar, Pune

 

Best training institute
Auriga Info Systems at Hadapsar - 	institute building photo_14135 Auriga Info Systems at Hadapsar - 	computer lab photo_14136 Auriga Info Systems at Hadapsar -  photo_18594 
Address: Auriga ERP Solution, C-113, Ground Floor, Mega-center, Hadpasar, Pune- 411028

AURIGA SAP products are used by over 12 million people in more than 120 countries. In order to keep pace with the growing demand of skilled manpower in SAP consulting, the SAP Ecosystem. Auriga Info Systems conducts Salesforce, SAP training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
training institutes Orilent Technology
Hadapsar, Pune

 

Best training institute
Orilent Technology at Hadapsar - 	center entrance photo_13492 Orilent Technology at Hadapsar - 	computer lab photo_13490 Orilent Technology at Hadapsar -  class room photo_13493 
Address: Flat No: 9, 1st Floor Manisha Blitz, Shankar Math, Hadapshar Pune-411028

Orilent Technology is an Excellent IT training organization for Job seekers (Both Freshers and Experienced Professionals).We are taking care of students till they get a job. Orilent Technology conducts Oracle, ITIL Foundations, IT Automation, Hadoop, IoT Internet of Things training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
training institutes iGuru Learning
Hadapsar, Pune
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Best training institute
iGuru Learning at Hadapsar - 	institute name board photo_14242 
Address: Mulberry Bungalow no 20, Phase 2,, Magarpatta City, Hadapsar, Pune, Maharashtra 411028

We are here to work as a platform to corporate and individuals to get trained & placed at cost effective, efficient and quality concerns. Our entire effort is to serve everyone in our segment. iGuru Learning conducts JAVA J2EE, Linux, Spoken English, Cloud Computing, Hadoop training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
training institutes AMTD
Hadapsar, Pune
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Best training institute
Address: Mega Center Building, Magarpatta, Hadapsar (Pune) 411028 google map of 15958

AMTD TRAINING is also known as "IT Training Hub", having its Corporate Office at Pune. AMTD is a company started by a group of professionals with vision to excel in the field of IT related services AMTD conducts Bigdata, JAVA J2EE, Informatica, Hadoop, Business Objects training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
training institutes Assur Technology
Hadapsar, Pune
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Best training institute
Address: Near Am College,Above Allhabad Bank 1st Floor Hadpsar Pune-412307

Assur Technology conducts .Net, JAVA J2EE, Hadoop, Basic Computer training, C C++ training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
training institutes Human Catalyst - The Skill Academy
Hadapsar, Pune
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Best training institute
Address: A503, 4th Floor, Megacenter, Hadapsar Pune-411028

Human Catalyst - The Skill Academy conducts SAP, Soft Skills, Personality Development, HR Course, Digital Marketing training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
training institutes ICA Edu Skills Pvt.Ltd.
Hadapsar, Pune
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Best training institute

ICA Edu Skills Pvt.Ltd. conducts Accounting & Finance, Tally training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
training institutes i360 Training Solutions
Hadapsar, Pune

 

training institute
i360 Training Solutions at Hadapsar - computer lab	 photo_14191 i360 Training Solutions at Hadapsar - center entrance	 photo_14190 i360 Training Solutions at Hadapsar - class room	 photo_14192 
Address: Amar Corner,Hadapsar Pune-411028

i360 Training Solutions Institute is a global training service institution. Started its training activity in the year 2001. The last Eight years have been a fruitful result of our hard work. i360 Training Solutions conducts PHP, JAVA J2EE, Web Designing, Tally, C C++ training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
training institutes ICA
Hadapsar, Pune
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training institute

ICA conducts MS Office, Tally, Accounting & Finance training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
training institutes ProcareerPoint
Hadapsar, Pune
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training institute

ProcareerPoint conducts Tally, Web Designing, PMP Certification, .Net, Android training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
training institutes Pace Career Academy
Hadapsar, Pune
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training institute

Pace Career Academy conducts Basic Computer training, Oracle, MS Office, Web Designing, Interior Designing training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
training institutes Rupita Beauty Acadamy
Hadapsar, Pune
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training institute

Rupita Beauty Acadamy conducts Beautician training classes at Hadapsar in Pune.
 
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Training centers in hadapsar, pune - Reviews & Complaints

List of training reviews for institutes located in and around hadapsar in pune location

 
Vishal 4 Star Rating: Best Training (4-Best Training)
Here i joined for java and trainer explained each n every topic 100% practically. That is very nice and i like it.Thanks cnc web world.
Institute reviewed : CNC WEB WORLD in Pune for training in Pune
 
 
Juber pathan 5 Star Rating: Excellent Training (5-Excellent Training)
Nice infrastructure, training quality is good as well as great placement cell, also provide friendly environment to employee and student also.
Institute reviewed : CMS IT Training Institute in Pune for training in Pune
 
 
Amarjeet 5 Star Rating: Excellent Training (5-Excellent Training)
Credit System India is One of the best place for Industrial Training in Pune. I am very happy here because here Development Lab is open for 24/7. For Special Java/J2EE, Framework- Spring, Hibernate, Web Services- SOAP & RESTful and Web Designing(HTML 5). Faculty is very expertise in Java. If you seriously want to invest your career in IT(Software Industry) then Credit Systems India, Pune is the Destination Center for you. They provide depth training, this is the key to get entry career for everyone.
My words- Thanks to "CSI"- Credit Systems India
Institute reviewed : Credit Systems India Pvt Ltd in Pune for training in Pune
 
 
Suresh Patil 4 Star Rating: Best Training (4-Best Training)
Employment oriented training and provide calls till placement of students. my complete batch got employment through them.

Thanks NSDA for your support to us.
Institute reviewed : NSDA ( CMC Academy - Hadapsar) in Pune for training in Pune
 
 
Noopur 5 Star Rating: Excellent Training (5-Excellent Training)
Really professional training institute. It has connect with multiple companies such as Apar, IBM and many more.I have received offer letter even prior joining any course @ NSDA ( CMC Academy - Hadapsar)This is only training academy, where you get offer letter prior your training started.
Institute reviewed : NSDA ( CMC Academy - Hadapsar) in Pune for training in Pune
 
 
Manoj Kumar Saha 4 Star Rating: Best Training (4-Best Training)
It was the one of the best experiences I have had. The atmosphere is lively, supportive and engaging. I can't wait to apply everything I have learnt throughout the course. I would recommend Orilent to anyone who has the enthusiasm for taking Courses like UNIX/Shell Scripting, hadoop, Cloud. I have completed these 3 courses and is keen on self development. It is a best institute for career growth. The trainers have really 8-12 years of real time experience as i marked in these 4 months of course.
Institute reviewed : Orilent Technology in Pune for training in Pune
 
 
Madhulika Agarwal 5 Star Rating: Excellent Training (5-Excellent Training)
I have Joined UNIX/Linux Shell scripting course and then Hadoop and BigData. It was fun! Nothing is really easy when it comes to learning but the best thing it teaches you is to never give up.
I have learned a lot not just from the actual teaching practice but also from our afternoon input sessions and feedback/ lesson planning time with this training Institute. The camaraderie among students, teachers, staffs and tutors made me feel really home. Thank you so much for everything; for the technical stuffs and staff (Mr Linux), the courses, access to supplies and for the experience! Thank you again!"
Institute reviewed : Orilent Technology in Pune for training in Pune
 


 

Training with placement, Course fees and Trainer Profiles in hadapsar, pune

EpicSofttech institute located at hadapsar in pune offers 8 Weeks of Selenium training course in Pune with Basic Placement Support.

Working professional. He will provide you real time scenario so you will never face any point.Working professional. He will provide you real time scenario so you will never face any point.He is worlki

What is Automation Testing? Why Automated Testing? When to Automate? Which Test Cases to Automate? Different Automation tools Automation challenges & Mitigations Introduction Installing the IDE IDE Features Building Test Cases Running Test Cases Building and Running Test Suites What is a Driver Different methods of finding element By ID By name By Xpath By Tag name By class name By Link text Various types of operation that can be performed on any elements and how to uset hem. capturing Screen shots Multiple Window Handling Pop Up Handling. Java Script injection Verifying statements � Preparing basic Automation Scripts and running them � Creating Re usable class and their 1. Framework Development � What is a Framework? � Different Types of Framework. � How to Design a framework? � Test NG � How to integrate TestNG with Eclipse � Test NG Annotations � TestNG features � TestNG Reporting 2. Object Repository preparation � Using Page Object and Page Factory. 3. Reporting � Using Report NG for generating reports through TestNG � Log4j - What is Log4j, how to use it, integration of Log4j with Eclipse 4. Build Tools - ANT � How to create a ANT project in Eclipse � ANT Build Cycles. � How to compile and Run tests using ANT
Orilent Technology institute located at hadapsar in pune offers 45 Day(s) of UNIX Shell Scripting training course in Pune with Basic Placement Support.

A competent IT professional with around 10 Years of experience into Development/Training role having expertise in UNIX Shell Scripting/SQL, encompassing a wide range of skill set, roles and industry v

1 The UNIX/Linux OS (Intro) 1.1 What is UNIX? 1.1.1 The kernel 1.1.2 The shell 1.2 Files and processes 1.3 The Directory Structure 1.4 UNIX Architecture 1.5 System Boot up 1.6 Login and logout 1.6.1 Shells 1.7 Who are the users log in? 1.7.1 Get the running processes of logged-in user using w 1.7.2 Get the user name and process of logged in user using who and users command. 1.7.3 Get the username you are currently logged in using whoami 1.7.4 Get the user login history at any time 1.8 Password Management 2 General Purpose Commands and Utilities. 2.1 Man page help 2.2 Commands 2.3 Files and directories 2.4 Manipulating data 2.5 Compressed files 2.6 Getting information 2.7 Network communication 2.8 Messages between users 2.9 Programming Utilities 2.10 Misc commands 3 UNIX File System and File management 3.1 What is UNIX? 3.2 Meta Characters 3.3 Hidden Files 3.4 File Operations (Create, rename, copy, Display content, delete, count words etc) 3.5 Standard UNIX streams (stdin, stdout, stderr) 3.6 Directory, home directory, absolute and relative path, 3.7 Create/remove/change/Renaming directory, Directories (. and ..) 3.8 Unix File Permission Setup 3.9 The Permission Indicators: 3.10 File/Directory Access Modes 3.10.1 1 Read: 3.10.2 2 Write: 3.10.3 3 Execute: 3.11 Changing Permissions: 3.11.1 Using chmod in Symbolic Mode: 3.11.2 Using chmod with Absolute Permissions: 3.11.3 Changing Owners and Groups: 3.11.4 Changing Ownership: 3.11.5 Changing Group Ownership: 3.11.6 SUID and SGID File Permission 3.12 Directory Structure 3.12.1 Navigating file system 3.12.2 The df command 3.12.3 The du command 3.12.4 Mounting the file system 3.12.5 User and group quotes 4 UNIX Environment 4.1 The .profile/.bashrc 4.2 Setting Terminal type 4.3 Setting Path 4.4 PS1 and PS2 Variables 5 vi - Editor 5.1 Operation Modes 5.2 Moving within file 5.3 Control commands 5.4 Editing Files 5.5 Deleting characters 5.6 Copy and Paste commands 5.7 Change commands 5.8 Searching and replacing text 5.9 Set commands 5.10 Running commands 6 File Attributes 7 The Shell 7.1 Shell Basics 7.2 Shell Prompt 7.3 Shell Types 7.4 Shell Scripts 7.5 Shell comments 8 UNIX Variables 8.1 Variable names 8.2 Defining variables 8.3 Accessing Variables 8.4 Read-Only Variables 8.5 Unsetting variables 8.6 Variable types 8.7 Special variables 8.8 Defining Array variables 8.9 Accessing Array values 8.10 Command line arguments 8.11 Special parameters $* and $@ 8.12 Exit status 9 UNIX Operators 9.1 Arithmetic 9.2 Boolean 9.3 Relational 9.4 String 9.5 File Test Operators (c shell and korn shell ) 10 Filters and Pipes 11 The Process 12 Grep & Find 13 Regular Expression 14 Sed and Awk 14.1 The sed- general syntax 14.2 The Sed addresses 14.3 The Sed Address Range 14.4 Substitution command 14.5 Using and alternative string separator 14.6 Replacing with empty spaces 14.7 Address Substitution 14.8 Matching command using regular expression 14.9 Matching characters using character class keywords 14.10 Ampersand Referencing 14.11 Using multiple sed commands 14.12 Back referencing 15 Shell Scripting 15.1 UNIX Decision making 15.1.1 If-elif-else-fi statement 15.1.2 Case-esac statement 15.2 UNIX Loop 15.2.1 While loop 15.2.2 For loop 15.2.3 Select loop 15.2.4 Loop control using break and continue 15.3 The Meta characters (* ? [ ] " $ ; & ( ) | ^ < > new line space tab 15.4 Command Substitution 15.5 Variable Substitution 15.6 Quoting Mechanism (Single, Double, back quotes) 15.7 UNIX I/O redirection 15.7.1 Output redirection 15.7.2 Input Redirection 15.7.3 Here Document 15.7.4 Discard output 15.7.5 Redirection commands 16 Advance UNIX Commands and Utilities 17 Advance Shell Scripting 17.1 UNIX function 17.1.1 Pass parameters to a function 17.1.2 Returning values from functions 17.1.3 Programs using all utilities like grep, tr, sed, awk etc 18 Emailing 19 Necessary Networking Commands 20 UNIX-User administration 20.1 Managing Users and Groups 20.2 Create a group 20.3 Modify a group 20.4 Delete a group 20.5 Create an account 20.6 Modify an account 20.7 Delete an account
Orilent Technology institute located at hadapsar in pune offers 2 Months of Big Data Analytics training course in Pune with Basic Placement Support.

Working in MNC

Bidata & Hadoop
Orilent Technology institute located at hadapsar in pune offers 2 Months of Linux training course in Pune with Basic Placement Support.

MNC working professionals

1 The UNIX/Linux OS (Intro) 1.1 What is UNIX? 1.1.1 The kernel 1.1.2 The shell 1.2 Files and processes 1.3 The Directory Structure 1.4 UNIX Architecture 1.5 System Boot up 1.6 Login and logout 1.6.1 Shells 1.7 Who are the users log in? 1.7.1 Get the running processes of logged-in user using w 1.7.2 Get the user name and process of logged in user using who and users command. 1.7.3 Get the username you are currently logged in using whoami 1.7.4 Get the user login history at any time 1.8 Password Management 2 General Purpose Commands and Utilities. 2.1 Man page help 2.2 Commands 2.3 Files and directories 2.4 Manipulating data 2.5 Compressed files 2.6 Getting information 2.7 Network communication 2.8 Messages between users 2.9 Programming Utilities 2.10 Misc commands 3 UNIX File System and File management 3.1 What is UNIX? 3.2 Meta Characters 3.3 Hidden Files 3.4 File Operations (Create, rename, copy, Display content, delete, count words etc) 3.5 Standard UNIX streams (stdin, stdout, stderr) 3.6 Directory, home directory, absolute and relative path, 3.7 Create/remove/change/Renaming directory, Directories (. and ..) 3.8 Unix File Permission Setup 3.9 The Permission Indicators: 3.10 File/Directory Access Modes 3.10.1 1 Read: 3.10.2 2 Write: 3.10.3 3 Execute: 3.11 Changing Permissions: 3.11.1 Using chmod in Symbolic Mode: 3.11.2 Using chmod with Absolute Permissions: 3.11.3 Changing Owners and Groups: 3.11.4 Changing Ownership: 3.11.5 Changing Group Ownership: 3.11.6 SUID and SGID File Permission 3.12 Directory Structure 3.12.1 Navigating file system 3.12.2 The df command 3.12.3 The du command 3.12.4 Mounting the file system 3.12.5 User and group quotes 4 UNIX Environment 4.1 The .profile/.bashrc 4.2 Setting Terminal type 4.3 Setting Path 4.4 PS1 and PS2 Variables 5 vi - Editor 5.1 Operation Modes 5.2 Moving within file 5.3 Control commands 5.4 Editing Files 5.5 Deleting characters 5.6 Copy and Paste commands 5.7 Change commands 5.8 Searching and replacing text 5.9 Set commands 5.10 Running commands 6 File Attributes 7 The Shell 7.1 Shell Basics 7.2 Shell Prompt 7.3 Shell Types 7.4 Shell Scripts 7.5 Shell comments 8 UNIX Variables 8.1 Variable names 8.2 Defining variables 8.3 Accessing Variables 8.4 Read-Only Variables 8.5 Unsetting variables 8.6 Variable types 8.7 Special variables 8.8 Defining Array variables 8.9 Accessing Array values 8.10 Command line arguments 8.11 Special parameters $* and $@ 8.12 Exit status 9 UNIX Operators 9.1 Arithmetic 9.2 Boolean 9.3 Relational 9.4 String 9.5 File Test Operators (c shell and korn shell ) 10 Filters and Pipes 11 The Process 12 Grep & Find 13 Regular Expression 14 Sed and Awk 14.1 The sed- general syntax 14.2 The Sed addresses 14.3 The Sed Address Range 14.4 Substitution command 14.5 Using and alternative string separator 14.6 Replacing with empty spaces 14.7 Address Substitution 14.8 Matching command using regular expression 14.9 Matching characters using character class keywords 14.10 Ampersand Referencing 14.11 Using multiple sed commands 14.12 Back referencing 15 Shell Scripting 15.1 UNIX Decision making 15.1.1 If-elif-else-fi statement 15.1.2 Case-esac statement 15.2 UNIX Loop 15.2.1 While loop 15.2.2 For loop 15.2.3 Select loop 15.2.4 Loop control using break and continue 15.3 The Meta characters (* ? [ ] " $ ; & ( ) | ^ < > new line space tab 15.4 Command Substitution 15.5 Variable Substitution 15.6 Quoting Mechanism (Single, Double, back quotes) 15.7 UNIX I/O redirection 15.7.1 Output redirection 15.7.2 Input Redirection 15.7.3 Here Document 15.7.4 Discard output 15.7.5 Redirection commands 16 Advance UNIX Commands and Utilities 17 Advance Shell Scripting 17.1 UNIX function 17.1.1 Pass parameters to a function 17.1.2 Returning values from functions 17.1.3 Programs using all utilities like grep, tr, sed, awk etc 18 Emailing 19 Necessary Networking Commands 20 UNIX-User administration 20.1 Managing Users and Groups 20.2 Create a group 20.3 Modify a group 20.4 Delete a group 20.5 Create an account 20.6 Modify an account 20.7 Delete an account 21 UNIX System Performance 21.1 Performance components 21.2 Performance tools 21.3 UNIX-System Logging 21.4 Syslog Facilities 21.5 Syslog Priorities 21.6 The /etc/syslog.conf file 21.7 Logging Action 21.8 The logger command 21.9 Log Rotation 21.10 Important Log location 22 UNIX �Signals and Traps 22.1 List of Signals 22.2 Default actions 22.3 Sending Signals 22.4 Trapping Signals 22.5 Cleaning Temporary files 22.6 Ignoring Signals 22.7 Resetting traps 1 The UNIX/Linux OS (Intro) 1.1 What is UNIX? UNIX is an operating system which was first developed in the 1960s, and has been under constant development ever since. By operating system, we mean the suite of programs which make the computer work. It is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking system for servers, desktops and laptops. UNIX systems also have a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to Microsoft Windows which provides an easy to use environment. However, knowledge of UNIX is required for operations which aren t covered by a graphical program, or for when there is no windows interface available, for example, in a telnet session. There are many different versions of UNIX, although they share common similarities. The most popular varieties of UNIX are Sun Solaris, GNU/Linux, and MacOS X. Here in the School, we use Solaris on our servers and workstations, and Fedora Linux on the servers and desktop PCs. The UNIX operating system is made up of three parts; the kernel, the shell and the programs. 1.1.1 The kernel The kernel of UNIX is the hub of the operating system: it allocates time and memory to programs and handles the filestore and communications in response to system calls. As an illustration of the way that the shell and the kernel work together, suppose a user types rm myfile (which has the effect of removing the file myfile). The shell searches the filestore for the file containing the program rm, and then requests the kernel, through system calls, to execute the program rm on myfile. When the process rm myfile has finished running, the shell then returns the UNIX prompt % to the user, indicating that it is waiting for further commands. 1.1.2 The shell The shell acts as an interface between the user and the kernel. When a user logs in, the login program checks the username and password, and then starts another program called the shell. The shell is a command line interpreter (CLI). It interprets the commands the user types in and arranges for them to be carried out. The commands are themselves programs: when they terminate, the shell gives the user another prompt (% on our systems). The adept user can customise his/her own shell, and users can use different shells on the same machine. Staff and students in the school have the tcsh shell by default. The tcsh shell has certain features to help the user inputting commands. Filename Completion - By typing part of the name of a command, filename or directory and pressing the [Tab] key, the tcsh shell will complete the rest of the name automatically. If the shell finds more than one name beginning with those letters you have typed, it will beep, prompting you to type a few more letters before pressing the tab key again. History - The shell keeps a list of the commands you have typed in. If you need to repeat a command, use the cursor keys to scroll up and down the list or type history for a list of previous commands. 1.2 Files and processes Everything in UNIX is either a file or a process. A process is an executing program identified by a unique PID (process identifier). A file is a collection of data. They are created by users using text editors, running compilers etc. Examples of files: � a document (report, essay etc.) � the text of a program written in some high-level programming language � instructions comprehensible directly to the machine and incomprehensible to a casual user, for example, a collection of binary digits (an executable or binary file); � a directory, containing information about its contents, which may be a mixture of other directories (subdirectories) and ordinary files. 1.3 The Directory Structure All the files are grouped together in the directory structure. The file-system is arranged in a hierarchical structure, like an inverted tree. The top of the hierarchy is traditionally called root (written as a slash / ) 1.4 UNIX Architecture In a strict sense, an operating system can be defined as the software that controls the hardware resources of the computer and provides an environment under which programs can run. Generally, we call this software the kernel, since it is relatively small and resides at the core of the environment. Figure 1.4 shows a diagram of the UNIX System architecture. Figure 1.4. Architecture of the UNIX operating system The interface to the kernel is a layer of software called the system calls (the shaded portion in Figure 1.1). Libraries of common functions are built on top of the system call interface, but applications are free to use both. (We talk more about system calls and library functions in Section 1.11.) The shell is a special application that provides an interface for running other applications. In a broad sense, an operating system is the kernel and all the other software that makes a computer useful and gives the computer its personality. This other software includes system utilities, applications, shells, libraries of common functions, and so on. For example, Linux is the kernel used by the GNU operating system. Some people refer to this as the GNU/Linux operating system, but it is more commonly referred to as simply Linux. Although this usage may not be correct in a strict sense, it is understandable, given the dual meaning of the phrase operating system. (It also has the advantage of being more succinct.) 1.5 System Boot up 6 Stages of Linux Boot Process (Startup Sequence) Press the power button on your system, and after few moments you see the Linux login prompt. Have you ever wondered what happens behind the scenes from the time you press the power button until the Linux login prompt appears? The following are the 6 high level stages of a typical Linux boot process. 1. BIOS � BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System � Performs some system integrity checss � Searches, loads, and executes the boot loader program. � It looks for boot loader in floppy, cd-rom, or hard drive. You can press a key (typically F12 of F2, but it depends on your system) during the BIOS startup to change the boot sequence. � Once the boot loader program is detected and loaded into the memory, BIOS gives the control to it. � So, in simple terms BIOS loads and executes the MBR boot loader. 2. MBR � MBR stands for Master Boot Record. � It is located in the 1st sector of the bootable disk. Typically /dev/hda, or /dev/sda � MBR is less than 512 bytes in size. This has three components 1) primary boot loader info in 1st 446 bytes 2) partition table info in next 64 bytes 3) mbr validation check in last 2 bytes. � It contains information about GRUB (or LILO in old systems). � So, in simple terms MBR loads and executes the GRUB boot loader. 3. GRUB � GRUB stands for Grand Unified Bootloader. � If you have multiple kernel images installed on your system, you can choose which one to be executed. � GRUB displays a splash screen, waits for few seconds, if you don�t enter anything, it loads the default kernel image as specified in the grub configuration file. � GRUB has the knowledge of the filesystem (the older Linux loader LILO didn�t understand filesystem). � Grub configuration file is /boot/grub/grub.conf (/etc/grub.conf is a link to this). The following is sample grub.conf of CentOS. #boot=/dev/sda default=0 timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz hiddenmenu title CentOS (2.6.18-194.el5PAE) root (hd0,0) kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-194.el5PAE ro root=LABEL=/ initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.18-194.el5PAE.img � As you notice from the above info, it contains kernel and initrd image. � So, in simple terms GRUB just loads and executes Kernel and initrd images. 4. Kernel � Mounts the root file system as specified in the �root=� in grub.conf � Kernel executes the /sbin/init program � Since init was the 1st program to be executed by Linux Kernel, it has the process id (PID) of 1. Do a �ps -ef | grep init� and check the pid. � initrd stands for Initial RAM Disk. � initrd is used by kernel as temporary root file system until kernel is booted and the real root file system is mounted. It also contains necessary drivers compiled inside, which helps it to access the hard drive partitions, and other hardware. 5. Init � Looks at the /etc/inittab file to decide the Linux run level. � Following are the available run levels 0 � halt 1 � Single user mode 2 � Multiuser, without NFS 3 � Full multiuser mode 4 � unused 5 � X11 6 � reboot � Init identifies the default initlevel from /etc/inittab and uses that to load all appropriate program. � Execute �grep initdefault /etc/inittab� on your system to identify the default run level � If you want to get into trouble, you can set the default run level to 0 or 6. Since you know what 0 and 6 means, probably you might not do that. � Typically you would set the default run level to either 3 or 5. 6. Runlevel programs � When the Linux system is booting up, you might see various services getting started. For example, it might say �starting sendmail �. OK�. Those are the runlevel programs, executed from the run level directory as defined by your run level. � Depending on your default init level setting, the system will execute the programs from one of the following directories. Run level 0 � /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/ Run level 1 � /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/ Run level 2 � /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/ Run level 3 � /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/ Run level 4 � /etc/rc.d/rc4.d/ Run level 5 � /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ Run level 6 � /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/ Please note that there are also symbolic links available for these directory under /etc directly. So, /etc/rc0.d is linked to /etc/rc.d/rc0.d. � Under the /etc/rc.d/rc*.d/ directories, you would see programs that start with S and K. � Programs starts with S are used during startup. S for startup. � Programs starts with K are used during shutdown. K for kill. � There are numbers right next to S and K in the program names. Those are the sequence number in which the programs should be started or killed. � For example, S12syslog is to start the syslog deamon, which has the sequence number of 12. S80sendmail is to start the sendmail daemon, which has the sequence number of 80. So, syslog program will be started before sendmail. � There you have it. That is what happens during the Linux boot process. 1.6 Login and logout Login Name When we log in to a UNIX system, we enter our login name, followed by our password. The system then looks up our login name in its password file, usually the file /etc/passwd. If we look at our entry in the password file we see that it s composed of seven colon-separated fields: the login name, encrypted password, numeric user ID (205), numeric group ID (105), a comment field, home directory (/home/sar), and shell program (/bin/ksh). sar:x:205:105:Stephen Rago:/home/sar:/bin/ksh All contemporary systems have moved the encrypted password to a different file. In Chapter 6, we ll look at these files and some functions to access them. 1.6.1 Shells Once we log in, some system information messages are typically displayed, and then we can type commands to the shell program. (Some systems start a window management program when you log in, but you generally end up with a shell running in one of the windows.) A shell is a command-line interpreter that reads user input and executes commands. The user input to a shell is normally from the terminal (an interactive shell) or sometimes from a file (called a shell script). The common shells in use are summarized in Figure 1.6. Figure 1.6. Common shells used on UNIX systems Name Path FreeBSD 5.2.1 Linux 2.4.22 Mac OS X 10.3 Solaris 9 Bourne shell /bin/sh � link to bash link to bash � Bourne-again shell /bin/bash optional � � � C shell /bin/csh link to tcsh link to tcsh link to tcsh � Korn shell /bin/ksh � TENEX C shell /bin/tcsh � � � � The system knows which shell to execute for us from the final field in our entry in the password file. The Bourne shell, developed by Steve Bourne at Bell Labs, has been in use since Version 7 and is provided with almost every UNIX system in existence. The control-flow constructs of the Bourne shell are reminiscent of Algol 68. The C shell, developed by Bill Joy at Berkeley, is provided with all the BSD releases. Additionally, the C shell was provided by AT&T with System V/386 Release 3.2 and is also in System V Release 4 (SVR4). (We ll have more to say about these different versions of the UNIX System in the next chapter.) The C shell was built on the 6th Edition shell, not the Bourne shell. Its control flow looks more like the C language, and it supports additional features that weren t provided by the Bourne shell: job control, a history mechanism, and command line editing. The Korn shell is considered a successor to the Bourne shell and was first provided with SVR4. The Korn shell, developed by David Korn at Bell Labs, runs on most UNIX systems, but before SVR4 was usually an extra-cost add-on, so it is not as widespread as the other two shells. It is upward compatible with the Bourne shell and includes those features that made the C shell popular: job control, command line editing, and so on. The Bourne-again shell is the GNU shell provided with all Linux systems. It was designed to be POSIX-conformant, while still remaining compatible with the Bourne shell. It supports features from both the C shell and the Korn shell. The TENEX C shell is an enhanced version of the C shell. It borrows several features, such as command completion, from the TENEX operating system (developed in 1972 at Bolt Beranek and Newman). The TENEX C shell adds many features to the C shell and is often used as a replacement for the C shell. Linux uses the Bourne-again shell for its default shell. In fact, /bin/sh is a link to /bin/bash. The default user shell in FreeBSD and Mac OS X is the TENEX C shell, but they use the Bourne shell for their administrative shell scripts because the C shell s programming language is notoriously difficult to use. Solaris, having its heritage in both BSD and System V, provides all the shells shown in Figure 1.6. Free ports of most of the shells are available on the Internet. Throughout the text, we will use parenthetical notes such as this to describe historical notes and to compare different implementations of the UNIX System. Often the reason for a particular implementation technique becomes clear when the historical reasons are described. Throughout this text, we ll show interactive shell examples to execute a program that we ve developed. These examples use features common to the Bourne shell, the Korn shell, and the Bourne-again shell. 1.7 Who are the users log in? As a system administrator, you may want to know who is on the system at any give point in time. You may also want to know what they are doing. In this article let us review 4 different methods to identify who is on your Linux system. 1.7.1 Get the running processes of logged-in user using w w command is used to show logged-in user names and what they are doing. The information will be read from /var/run/utmp file. The output of the w command contains the following columns: � Name of the user � User�s machine number or tty number � Remote machine address � User�s Login time � Idle time (not usable time) � Time used by all processes attached to the tty (JCPU time) � Time used by the current process (PCPU time) � Command currently getting executed by the users Following options can be used for the w command: -h Ignore the header information -u Display the load average (uptime output) -s Remove the JCPU, PCPU, and login time. $ w 23:04:27 up 29 days, 7:51, 3 users, load average: 0.04, 0.06, 0.02 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT ramesh pts/0 dev-db-server 22:57 8.00s 0.05s 0.01s sshd: ramesh [priv] jason pts/1 dev-db-server 23:01 2:53 0.01s 0.01s -bash john pts/2 dev-db-server 23:04 0.00s 0.00s 0.00s w $ w -h ramesh pts/0 dev-db-server 22:57 17:43 2.52s 0.01s sshd: ramesh [priv] jason pts/1 dev-db-server 23:01 20:28 0.01s 0.01s -bash john pts/2 dev-db-server 23:04 0.00s 0.03s 0.00s w -h $ w -u 23:22:06 up 29 days, 8:08, 3 users, load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT ramesh pts/0 dev-db-server 22:57 17:47 2.52s 2.49s top jason pts/1 dev-db-server 23:01 20:32 0.01s 0.01s -bash john pts/2 dev-db-server 23:04 0.00s 0.03s 0.00s w -u $ w -s 23:22:10 up 29 days, 8:08, 3 users, load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 USER TTY FROM IDLE WHAT ramesh pts/0 dev-db-server 17:51 sshd: ramesh [priv] jason pts/1 dev-db-server 20:36 -bash john pts/2 dev-db-server 1.00s w �s 1.7.2 Get the user name and process of logged in user using who and users command. who command is used to get the list of the usernames who are currently logged in. Output of the who command contains the following columns: user name, tty number, date and time, machine address. $ who ramesh pts/0 2009-03-28 22:57 (dev-db-server) jason pts/1 2009-03-28 23:01 (dev-db-server) john pts/2 2009-03-28 23:04 (dev-db-server) To get a list of all usernames that are currently logged in, use the following: $ who | cut -d -f1 | sort | uniq john jason Users Command users command is used to print the user name who are all currently logged in the current host. It is one of the command don�t have any option other than help and version. If the user using, �n� number of terminals, the user name will shown in �n� number of time in the output. $ users john jason ramesh 1.7.3 Get the username you are currently logged in using whoami whoami command is used to print the loggedin user name. $ whoami john whoami command gives the same output as id -un as shown below: $ id -un john who am i command will display the logged-in user name and current tty details. The output of this command contains the following columns: logged-in user name, tty name, current time with date and ip-address from where this users initiated the connection. $ who am i john pts/2 2009-03-28 23:04 (dev-db-server) $ who mom likes john pts/2 2009-03-28 23:04 (dev-db-server) Warning: Don t try "who mom hates" command. Also, if you do su to some other user, this command will give the information about the logged in user name details. 1.7.4 Get the user login history at any time last command will give login history for a specific username. If we don�t give any argument for this command, it will list login history for all users. By default this information will read from /var/log/wtmp file. The output of this command contains the following columns: User name Tty device number Login date and time Logout time Total working time $ last jason jason pts/0 dev-db-server Fri Mar 27 22:57 still logged in jason pts/0 dev-db-server Fri Mar 27 22:09 - 22:54 (00:45) jason pts/1 192.168.201.12 Thu Mar 12 09:03 - 09:19 (00:15) jason pts/0 dev-db-server Wed Mar 11 20:11 - 20:50 (00:39 1.8 Password Management 2 General Purpose Commands and Utilities. 2.1 Man page help 2.2 Commands 2.3 Files and directories 2.4 Manipulating data 2.5 Compressed files 2.6 Getting information 2.7 Network communication 2.8 Messages between users 2.9 Programming Utilities 2.10 Misc commands 3 UNIX File System and File management 3.1 What is UNIX? 3.2 Meta Characters 3.3 Hidden Files 3.4 File Operations (Create, rename, copy, Display content, delete, count words etc) 3.5 Standard UNIX streams (stdin, stdout, stderr) 3.6 Directory, home directory, absolute and relative path, 3.7 Create/remove/change/Renaming directory, Directories (. and ..) 3.8 Unix File Permission Setup 3.9 The Permission Indicators: 3.10 File/Directory Access Modes 3.10.1 1 Read: 3.10.2 2 Write: 3.10.3 3 Execute: 3.11 Changing Permissions: 3.11.1 Using chmod in Symbolic Mode: 3.11.2 Using chmod with Absolute Permissions: 3.11.3 Changing Owners and Groups: 3.11.4 Changing Ownership: 3.11.5 Changing Group Ownership: 3.11.6 SUID and SGID File Permission 3.12 Directory Structure 3.12.1 Navigating file system 3.12.2 The df command 3.12.3 The du command 3.12.4 Mounting the file system 3.12.5 User and group quotes 4 UNIX Environment 4.1 The .profile/.bashrc 4.2 Setting Terminal type 4.3 Setting Path 4.4 PS1 and PS2 Variables 5 vi - Editor 5.1 Operation Modes 5.2 Moving within file 5.3 Control commands 5.4 Editing Files 5.5 Deleting characters 5.6 Copy and Paste commands 5.7 Change commands 5.8 Searching and replacing text 5.9 Set commands 5.10 Running commands 6 File Attributes 7 The Shell 7.1 Shell Basics 7.2 Shell Prompt 7.3 Shell Types 7.4 Shell Scripts Interpreter Compiler Translates program one statement at a time. Scans the entire program and translates it as a whole into machine code. It takes less amount of time to analyze the source code but the overall execution time is slower. It takes large amount of time to analyze the source code but the overall execution time is comparatively faster. No intermediate object code is generated, hence are memory efficient. Generates intermediate object code which further requires linking, hence requires more memory. Continues translating the program until the first error is met, in which case it stops. Hence debugging is easy. It generates the error message only after scanning the whole program. Hence debugging is comparatively hard. Programming language like Python, Ruby use interpreters. Programming language like C, C++ use compilers. 7.5 Shell comments 8 UNIX Variables 8.1 Variable names 8.2 Defining variables 8.3 Accessing Variables 8.4 Read-Only Variables 8.5 Unsetting variables 8.6 Variable types 8.7 Special variables 8.8 Defining Array variables 8.9 Accessing Array values 8.10 Command line arguments 8.11 Special parameters $* and $@ 8.12 Exit status 9 UNIX Operators 9.1 Arithmetic 9.2 Boolean 9.3 Relational 9.4 String 9.5 File Test Operators (c shell and korn shell ) 10 Filters and Pipes 11 The Process 12 Grep & Find 13 Regular Expression 14 Sed and Awk 14.1 The sed- general syntax 14.2 The Sed addresses 14.3 The Sed Address Range 14.4 Substitution command 14.5 Using and alternative string separator 14.6 Replacing with empty spaces 14.7 Address Substitution 14.8 Matching command using regular expression 14.9 Matching characters using character class keywords 14.10 Ampersand Referencing 14.11 Using multiple sed commands 14.12 Back referencing 15 Shell Scripting 15.1 UNIX Decision making 15.1.1 If-elif-else-fi statement 15.1.2 Case-esac statement 15.2 UNIX Loop 15.2.1 While loop 15.2.2 For loop 15.2.3 Select loop 15.2.4 Loop control using break and continue 15.3 The Meta characters (* ? [ ] " $ ; & ( ) | ^ < > new line space tab 15.4 Command Substitution 15.5 Variable Substitution 15.6 Quoting Mechanism (Single, Double, back quotes) 15.7 UNIX I/O redirection 15.7.1 Output redirection 15.7.2 Input Redirection 15.7.3 Here Document 15.7.4 Discard output 15.7.5 Redirection commands 16 Advance UNIX Commands and Utilities 17 Advance Shell Scripting 17.1 UNIX function 17.1.1 Pass parameters to a function 17.1.2 Returning values from functions 17.1.3 Programs using all utilities like grep, tr, sed, awk etc 18 Emailing 19 Necessary Networking Commands 20 UNIX-User administration 20.1 Managing Users and Groups 20.2 Create a group 20.3 Modify a group 20.4 Delete a group 20.5 Create an account 20.6 Modify an account 20.7 Delete an account
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1 The UNIX/Linux OS (Intro) 1.1 What is UNIX? 1.1.1 The kernel 1.1.2 The shell 1.2 Files and processes 1.3 The Directory Structure 1.4 UNIX Architecture 1.5 System Boot up 1.6 Login and logout 1.6.1 Shells 1.7 Who are the users log in? 1.7.1 Get the running processes of logged-in user using w 1.7.2 Get the user name and process of logged in user using who and users command. 1.7.3 Get the username you are currently logged in using whoami 1.7.4 Get the user login history at any time 1.8 Password Management 2 General Purpose Commands and Utilities. 2.1 Man page help 2.2 Commands 2.3 Files and directories 2.4 Manipulating data 2.5 Compressed files 2.6 Getting information 2.7 Network communication 2.8 Messages between users 2.9 Programming Utilities 2.10 Misc commands 3 UNIX File System and File management 3.1 What is UNIX? 3.2 Meta Characters 3.3 Hidden Files 3.4 File Operations (Create, rename, copy, Display content, delete, count words etc) 3.5 Standard UNIX streams (stdin, stdout, stderr) 3.6 Directory, home directory, absolute and relative path, 3.7 Create/remove/change/Renaming directory, Directories (. and ..) 3.8 Unix File Permission Setup 3.9 The Permission Indicators: 3.10 File/Directory Access Modes 3.10.1 1 Read: 3.10.2 2 Write: 3.10.3 3 Execute: 3.11 Changing Permissions: 3.11.1 Using chmod in Symbolic Mode: 3.11.2 Using chmod with Absolute Permissions: 3.11.3 Changing Owners and Groups: 3.11.4 Changing Ownership: 3.11.5 Changing Group Ownership: 3.11.6 SUID and SGID File Permission 3.12 Directory Structure 3.12.1 Navigating file system 3.12.2 The df command 3.12.3 The du command 3.12.4 Mounting the file system 3.12.5 User and group quotes 4 UNIX Environment 4.1 The .profile/.bashrc 4.2 Setting Terminal type 4.3 Setting Path 4.4 PS1 and PS2 Variables 5 vi - Editor 5.1 Operation Modes 5.2 Moving within file 5.3 Control commands 5.4 Editing Files 5.5 Deleting characters 5.6 Copy and Paste commands 5.7 Change commands 5.8 Searching and replacing text 5.9 Set commands 5.10 Running commands 6 File Attributes 7 The Shell 7.1 Shell Basics 7.2 Shell Prompt 7.3 Shell Types 7.4 Shell Scripts 7.5 Shell comments 8 UNIX Variables 8.1 Variable names 8.2 Defining variables 8.3 Accessing Variables 8.4 Read-Only Variables 8.5 Unsetting variables 8.6 Variable types 8.7 Special variables 8.8 Defining Array variables 8.9 Accessing Array values 8.10 Command line arguments 8.11 Special parameters $* and $@ 8.12 Exit status 9 UNIX Operators 9.1 Arithmetic 9.2 Boolean 9.3 Relational 9.4 String 9.5 File Test Operators (c shell and korn shell ) 10 Filters and Pipes 11 The Process 12 Grep & Find 13 Regular Expression 14 Sed and Awk 14.1 The sed- general syntax 14.2 The Sed addresses 14.3 The Sed Address Range 14.4 Substitution command 14.5 Using and alternative string separator 14.6 Replacing with empty spaces 14.7 Address Substitution 14.8 Matching command using regular expression 14.9 Matching characters using character class keywords 14.10 Ampersand Referencing 14.11 Using multiple sed commands 14.12 Back referencing 15 Shell Scripting 15.1 UNIX Decision making 15.1.1 If-elif-else-fi statement 15.1.2 Case-esac statement 15.2 UNIX Loop 15.2.1 While loop 15.2.2 For loop 15.2.3 Select loop 15.2.4 Loop control using break and continue 15.3 The Meta characters (* ? [ ] " $ ; & ( ) | ^ < > new line space tab 15.4 Command Substitution 15.5 Variable Substitution 15.6 Quoting Mechanism (Single, Double, back quotes) 15.7 UNIX I/O redirection 15.7.1 Output redirection 15.7.2 Input Redirection 15.7.3 Here Document 15.7.4 Discard output 15.7.5 Redirection commands 16 Advance UNIX Commands and Utilities 17 Advance Shell Scripting 17.1 UNIX function 17.1.1 Pass parameters to a function 17.1.2 Returning values from functions 17.1.3 Programs using all utilities like grep, tr, sed, awk etc 18 Emailing 19 Necessary Networking Commands 20 UNIX-User administration 20.1 Managing Users and Groups 20.2 Create a group 20.3 Modify a group 20.4 Delete a group 20.5 Create an account 20.6 Modify an account 20.7 Delete an account 21 UNIX System Performance 21.1 Performance components 21.2 Performance tools 21.3 UNIX-System Logging 21.4 Syslog Facilities 21.5 Syslog Priorities 21.6 The /etc/syslog.conf file 21.7 Logging Action 21.8 The logger command 21.9 Log Rotation 21.10 Important Log location 22 UNIX �Signals and Traps 22.1 List of Signals 22.2 Default actions 22.3 Sending Signals 22.4 Trapping Signals 22.5 Cleaning Temporary files 22.6 Ignoring Signals 22.7 Resetting traps 1 The UNIX/Linux OS (Intro) 1.1 What is UNIX? UNIX is an operating system which was first developed in the 1960s, and has been under constant development ever since. By operating system, we mean the suite of programs which make the computer work. It is a stable, multi-user, multi-tasking system for servers, desktops and laptops. UNIX systems also have a graphical user interface (GUI) similar to Microsoft Windows which provides an easy to use environment. However, knowledge of UNIX is required for operations which aren t covered by a graphical program, or for when there is no windows interface available, for example, in a telnet session. There are many different versions of UNIX, although they share common similarities. The most popular varieties of UNIX are Sun Solaris, GNU/Linux, and MacOS X. Here in the School, we use Solaris on our servers and workstations, and Fedora Linux on the servers and desktop PCs. The UNIX operating system is made up of three parts; the kernel, the shell and the programs. 1.1.1 The kernel The kernel of UNIX is the hub of the operating system: it allocates time and memory to programs and handles the filestore and communications in response to system calls. As an illustration of the way that the shell and the kernel work together, suppose a user types rm myfile (which has the effect of removing the file myfile). The shell searches the filestore for the file containing the program rm, and then requests the kernel, through system calls, to execute the program rm on myfile. When the process rm myfile has finished running, the shell then returns the UNIX prompt % to the user, indicating that it is waiting for further commands. 1.1.2 The shell The shell acts as an interface between the user and the kernel. When a user logs in, the login program checks the username and password, and then starts another program called the shell. The shell is a command line interpreter (CLI). It interprets the commands the user types in and arranges for them to be carried out. The commands are themselves programs: when they terminate, the shell gives the user another prompt (% on our systems). The adept user can customise his/her own shell, and users can use different shells on the same machine. Staff and students in the school have the tcsh shell by default. The tcsh shell has certain features to help the user inputting commands. Filename Completion - By typing part of the name of a command, filename or directory and pressing the [Tab] key, the tcsh shell will complete the rest of the name automatically. If the shell finds more than one name beginning with those letters you have typed, it will beep, prompting you to type a few more letters before pressing the tab key again. History - The shell keeps a list of the commands you have typed in. If you need to repeat a command, use the cursor keys to scroll up and down the list or type history for a list of previous commands. 1.2 Files and processes Everything in UNIX is either a file or a process. A process is an executing program identified by a unique PID (process identifier). A file is a collection of data. They are created by users using text editors, running compilers etc. Examples of files: � a document (report, essay etc.) � the text of a program written in some high-level programming language � instructions comprehensible directly to the machine and incomprehensible to a casual user, for example, a collection of binary digits (an executable or binary file); � a directory, containing information about its contents, which may be a mixture of other directories (subdirectories) and ordinary files. 1.3 The Directory Structure All the files are grouped together in the directory structure. The file-system is arranged in a hierarchical structure, like an inverted tree. The top of the hierarchy is traditionally called root (written as a slash / ) 1.4 UNIX Architecture In a strict sense, an operating system can be defined as the software that controls the hardware resources of the computer and provides an environment under which programs can run. Generally, we call this software the kernel, since it is relatively small and resides at the core of the environment. Figure 1.4 shows a diagram of the UNIX System architecture. Figure 1.4. Architecture of the UNIX operating system The interface to the kernel is a layer of software called the system calls (the shaded portion in Figure 1.1). Libraries of common functions are built on top of the system call interface, but applications are free to use both. (We talk more about system calls and library functions in Section 1.11.) The shell is a special application that provides an interface for running other applications. In a broad sense, an operating system is the kernel and all the other software that makes a computer useful and gives the computer its personality. This other software includes system utilities, applications, shells, libraries of common functions, and so on. For example, Linux is the kernel used by the GNU operating system. Some people refer to this as the GNU/Linux operating system, but it is more commonly referred to as simply Linux. Although this usage may not be correct in a strict sense, it is understandable, given the dual meaning of the phrase operating system. (It also has the advantage of being more succinct.) 1.5 System Boot up 6 Stages of Linux Boot Process (Startup Sequence) Press the power button on your system, and after few moments you see the Linux login prompt. Have you ever wondered what happens behind the scenes from the time you press the power button until the Linux login prompt appears? The following are the 6 high level stages of a typical Linux boot process. 1. BIOS � BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System � Performs some system integrity checss � Searches, loads, and executes the boot loader program. � It looks for boot loader in floppy, cd-rom, or hard drive. You can press a key (typically F12 of F2, but it depends on your system) during the BIOS startup to change the boot sequence. � Once the boot loader program is detected and loaded into the memory, BIOS gives the control to it. � So, in simple terms BIOS loads and executes the MBR boot loader. 2. MBR � MBR stands for Master Boot Record. � It is located in the 1st sector of the bootable disk. Typically /dev/hda, or /dev/sda � MBR is less than 512 bytes in size. This has three components 1) primary boot loader info in 1st 446 bytes 2) partition table info in next 64 bytes 3) mbr validation check in last 2 bytes. � It contains information about GRUB (or LILO in old systems). � So, in simple terms MBR loads and executes the GRUB boot loader. 3. GRUB � GRUB stands for Grand Unified Bootloader. � If you have multiple kernel images installed on your system, you can choose which one to be executed. � GRUB displays a splash screen, waits for few seconds, if you don�t enter anything, it loads the default kernel image as specified in the grub configuration file. � GRUB has the knowledge of the filesystem (the older Linux loader LILO didn�t understand filesystem). � Grub configuration file is /boot/grub/grub.conf (/etc/grub.conf is a link to this). The following is sample grub.conf of CentOS. #boot=/dev/sda default=0 timeout=5 splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz hiddenmenu title CentOS (2.6.18-194.el5PAE) root (hd0,0) kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-194.el5PAE ro root=LABEL=/ initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.18-194.el5PAE.img � As you notice from the above info, it contains kernel and initrd image. � So, in simple terms GRUB just loads and executes Kernel and initrd images. 4. Kernel � Mounts the root file system as specified in the �root=� in grub.conf � Kernel executes the /sbin/init program � Since init was the 1st program to be executed by Linux Kernel, it has the process id (PID) of 1. Do a �ps -ef | grep init� and check the pid. � initrd stands for Initial RAM Disk. � initrd is used by kernel as temporary root file system until kernel is booted and the real root file system is mounted. It also contains necessary drivers compiled inside, which helps it to access the hard drive partitions, and other hardware. 5. Init � Looks at the /etc/inittab file to decide the Linux run level. � Following are the available run levels 0 � halt 1 � Single user mode 2 � Multiuser, without NFS 3 � Full multiuser mode 4 � unused 5 � X11 6 � reboot � Init identifies the default initlevel from /etc/inittab and uses that to load all appropriate program. � Execute �grep initdefault /etc/inittab� on your system to identify the default run level � If you want to get into trouble, you can set the default run level to 0 or 6. Since you know what 0 and 6 means, probably you might not do that. � Typically you would set the default run level to either 3 or 5. 6. Runlevel programs � When the Linux system is booting up, you might see various services getting started. For example, it might say �starting sendmail �. OK�. Those are the runlevel programs, executed from the run level directory as defined by your run level. � Depending on your default init level setting, the system will execute the programs from one of the following directories. Run level 0 � /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/ Run level 1 � /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/ Run level 2 � /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/ Run level 3 � /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/ Run level 4 � /etc/rc.d/rc4.d/ Run level 5 � /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ Run level 6 � /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/ Please note that there are also symbolic links available for these directory under /etc directly. So, /etc/rc0.d is linked to /etc/rc.d/rc0.d. � Under the /etc/rc.d/rc*.d/ directories, you would see programs that start with S and K. � Programs starts with S are used during startup. S for startup. � Programs starts with K are used during shutdown. K for kill. � There are numbers right next to S and K in the program names. Those are the sequence number in which the programs should be started or killed. � For example, S12syslog is to start the syslog deamon, which has the sequence number of 12. S80sendmail is to start the sendmail daemon, which has the sequence number of 80. So, syslog program will be started before sendmail. � There you have it. That is what happens during the Linux boot process. 1.6 Login and logout Login Name When we log in to a UNIX system, we enter our login name, followed by our password. The system then looks up our login name in its password file, usually the file /etc/passwd. If we look at our entry in the password file we see that it s composed of seven colon-separated fields: the login name, encrypted password, numeric user ID (205), numeric group ID (105), a comment field, home directory (/home/sar), and shell program (/bin/ksh). sar:x:205:105:Stephen Rago:/home/sar:/bin/ksh All contemporary systems have moved the encrypted password to a different file. In Chapter 6, we ll look at these files and some functions to access them. 1.6.1 Shells Once we log in, some system information messages are typically displayed, and then we can type commands to the shell program. (Some systems start a window management program when you log in, but you generally end up with a shell running in one of the windows.) A shell is a command-line interpreter that reads user input and executes commands. The user input to a shell is normally from the terminal (an interactive shell) or sometimes from a file (called a shell script). The common shells in use are summarized in Figure 1.6. Figure 1.6. Common shells used on UNIX systems Name Path FreeBSD 5.2.1 Linux 2.4.22 Mac OS X 10.3 Solaris 9 Bourne shell /bin/sh � link to bash link to bash � Bourne-again shell /bin/bash optional � � � C shell /bin/csh link to tcsh link to tcsh link to tcsh � Korn shell /bin/ksh � TENEX C shell /bin/tcsh � � � � The system knows which shell to execute for us from the final field in our entry in the password file. The Bourne shell, developed by Steve Bourne at Bell Labs, has been in use since Version 7 and is provided with almost every UNIX system in existence. The control-flow constructs of the Bourne shell are reminiscent of Algol 68. The C shell, developed by Bill Joy at Berkeley, is provided with all the BSD releases. Additionally, the C shell was provided by AT&T with System V/386 Release 3.2 and is also in System V Release 4 (SVR4). (We ll have more to say about these different versions of the UNIX System in the next chapter.) The C shell was built on the 6th Edition shell, not the Bourne shell. Its control flow looks more like the C language, and it supports additional features that weren t provided by the Bourne shell: job control, a history mechanism, and command line editing. The Korn shell is considered a successor to the Bourne shell and was first provided with SVR4. The Korn shell, developed by David Korn at Bell Labs, runs on most UNIX systems, but before SVR4 was usually an extra-cost add-on, so it is not as widespread as the other two shells. It is upward compatible with the Bourne shell and includes those features that made the C shell popular: job control, command line editing, and so on. The Bourne-again shell is the GNU shell provided with all Linux systems. It was designed to be POSIX-conformant, while still remaining compatible with the Bourne shell. It supports features from both the C shell and the Korn shell. The TENEX C shell is an enhanced version of the C shell. It borrows several features, such as command completion, from the TENEX operating system (developed in 1972 at Bolt Beranek and Newman). The TENEX C shell adds many features to the C shell and is often used as a replacement for the C shell. Linux uses the Bourne-again shell for its default shell. In fact, /bin/sh is a link to /bin/bash. The default user shell in FreeBSD and Mac OS X is the TENEX C shell, but they use the Bourne shell for their administrative shell scripts because the C shell s programming language is notoriously difficult to use. Solaris, having its heritage in both BSD and System V, provides all the shells shown in Figure 1.6. Free ports of most of the shells are available on the Internet. Throughout the text, we will use parenthetical notes such as this to describe historical notes and to compare different implementations of the UNIX System. Often the reason for a particular implementation technique becomes clear when the historical reasons are described. Throughout this text, we ll show interactive shell examples to execute a program that we ve developed. These examples use features common to the Bourne shell, the Korn shell, and the Bourne-again shell. 1.7 Who are the users log in? As a system administrator, you may want to know who is on the system at any give point in time. You may also want to know what they are doing. In this article let us review 4 different methods to identify who is on your Linux system. 1.7.1 Get the running processes of logged-in user using w w command is used to show logged-in user names and what they are doing. The information will be read from /var/run/utmp file. The output of the w command contains the following columns: � Name of the user � User�s machine number or tty number � Remote machine address � User�s Login time � Idle time (not usable time) � Time used by all processes attached to the tty (JCPU time) � Time used by the current process (PCPU time) � Command currently getting executed by the users Following options can be used for the w command: -h Ignore the header information -u Display the load average (uptime output) -s Remove the JCPU, PCPU, and login time. $ w 23:04:27 up 29 days, 7:51, 3 users, load average: 0.04, 0.06, 0.02 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT ramesh pts/0 dev-db-server 22:57 8.00s 0.05s 0.01s sshd: ramesh [priv] jason pts/1 dev-db-server 23:01 2:53 0.01s 0.01s -bash john pts/2 dev-db-server 23:04 0.00s 0.00s 0.00s w $ w -h ramesh pts/0 dev-db-server 22:57 17:43 2.52s 0.01s sshd: ramesh [priv] jason pts/1 dev-db-server 23:01 20:28 0.01s 0.01s -bash john pts/2 dev-db-server 23:04 0.00s 0.03s 0.00s w -h $ w -u 23:22:06 up 29 days, 8:08, 3 users, load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 USER TTY FROM LOGIN@ IDLE JCPU PCPU WHAT ramesh pts/0 dev-db-server 22:57 17:47 2.52s 2.49s top jason pts/1 dev-db-server 23:01 20:32 0.01s 0.01s -bash john pts/2 dev-db-server 23:04 0.00s 0.03s 0.00s w -u $ w -s 23:22:10 up 29 days, 8:08, 3 users, load average: 0.00, 0.00, 0.00 USER TTY FROM IDLE WHAT ramesh pts/0 dev-db-server 17:51 sshd: ramesh [priv] jason pts/1 dev-db-server 20:36 -bash john pts/2 dev-db-server 1.00s w �s 1.7.2 Get the user name and process of logged in user using who and users command. who command is used to get the list of the usernames who are currently logged in. Output of the who command contains the following columns: user name, tty number, date and time, machine address. $ who ramesh pts/0 2009-03-28 22:57 (dev-db-server) jason pts/1 2009-03-28 23:01 (dev-db-server) john pts/2 2009-03-28 23:04 (dev-db-server) To get a list of all usernames that are currently logged in, use the following: $ who | cut -d -f1 | sort | uniq john jason Users Command users command is used to print the user name who are all currently logged in the current host. It is one of the command don�t have any option other than help and version. If the user using, �n� number of terminals, the user name will shown in �n� number of time in the output. $ users john jason ramesh 1.7.3 Get the username you are currently logged in using whoami whoami command is used to print the loggedin user name. $ whoami john whoami command gives the same output as id -un as shown below: $ id -un john who am i command will display the logged-in user name and current tty details. The output of this command contains the following columns: logged-in user name, tty name, current time with date and ip-address from where this users initiated the connection. $ who am i john pts/2 2009-03-28 23:04 (dev-db-server) $ who mom likes john pts/2 2009-03-28 23:04 (dev-db-server) Warning: Don t try "who mom hates" command. Also, if you do su to some other user, this command will give the information about the logged in user name details. 1.7.4 Get the user login history at any time last command will give login history for a specific username. If we don�t give any argument for this command, it will list login history for all users. By default this information will read from /var/log/wtmp file. The output of this command contains the following columns: User name Tty device number Login date and time Logout time Total working time $ last jason jason pts/0 dev-db-server Fri Mar 27 22:57 still logged in jason pts/0 dev-db-server Fri Mar 27 22:09 - 22:54 (00:45) jason pts/1 192.168.201.12 Thu Mar 12 09:03 - 09:19 (00:15) jason pts/0 dev-db-server Wed Mar 11 20:11 - 20:50 (00:39 1.8 Password Management 2 General Purpose Commands and Utilities. 2.1 Man page help 2.2 Commands 2.3 Files and directories 2.4 Manipulating data 2.5 Compressed files 2.6 Getting information 2.7 Network communication 2.8 Messages between users 2.9 Programming Utilities 2.10 Misc commands 3 UNIX File System and File management 3.1 What is UNIX? 3.2 Meta Characters 3.3 Hidden Files 3.4 File Operations (Create, rename, copy, Display content, delete, count words etc) 3.5 Standard UNIX streams (stdin, stdout, stderr) 3.6 Directory, home directory, absolute and relative path, 3.7 Create/remove/change/Renaming directory, Directories (. and ..) 3.8 Unix File Permission Setup 3.9 The Permission Indicators: 3.10 File/Directory Access Modes 3.10.1 1 Read: 3.10.2 2 Write: 3.10.3 3 Execute: 3.11 Changing Permissions: 3.11.1 Using chmod in Symbolic Mode: 3.11.2 Using chmod with Absolute Permissions: 3.11.3 Changing Owners and Groups: 3.11.4 Changing Ownership: 3.11.5 Changing Group Ownership: 3.11.6 SUID and SGID File Permission 3.12 Directory Structure 3.12.1 Navigating file system 3.12.2 The df command 3.12.3 The du command 3.12.4 Mounting the file system 3.12.5 User and group quotes 4 UNIX Environment 4.1 The .profile/.bashrc 4.2 Setting Terminal type 4.3 Setting Path 4.4 PS1 and PS2 Variables 5 vi - Editor 5.1 Operation Modes 5.2 Moving within file 5.3 Control commands 5.4 Editing Files 5.5 Deleting characters 5.6 Copy and Paste commands 5.7 Change commands 5.8 Searching and replacing text 5.9 Set commands 5.10 Running commands 6 File Attributes 7 The Shell 7.1 Shell Basics 7.2 Shell Prompt 7.3 Shell Types 7.4 Shell Scripts Interpreter Compiler Translates program one statement at a time. Scans the entire program and translates it as a whole into machine code. It takes less amount of time to analyze the source code but the overall execution time is slower. It takes large amount of time to analyze the source code but the overall execution time is comparatively faster. No intermediate object code is generated, hence are memory efficient. Generates intermediate object code which further requires linking, hence requires more memory. Continues translating the program until the first error is met, in which case it stops. Hence debugging is easy. It generates the error message only after scanning the whole program. Hence debugging is comparatively hard. Programming language like Python, Ruby use interpreters. Programming language like C, C++ use compilers. 7.5 Shell comments 8 UNIX Variables 8.1 Variable names 8.2 Defining variables 8.3 Accessing Variables 8.4 Read-Only Variables 8.5 Unsetting variables 8.6 Variable types 8.7 Special variables 8.8 Defining Array variables 8.9 Accessing Array values 8.10 Command line arguments 8.11 Special parameters $* and $@ 8.12 Exit status 9 UNIX Operators 9.1 Arithmetic 9.2 Boolean 9.3 Relational 9.4 String 9.5 File Test Operators (c shell and korn shell ) 10 Filters and Pipes 11 The Process 12 Grep & Find 13 Regular Expression 14 Sed and Awk 14.1 The sed- general syntax 14.2 The Sed addresses 14.3 The Sed Address Range 14.4 Substitution command 14.5 Using and alternative string separator 14.6 Replacing with empty spaces 14.7 Address Substitution 14.8 Matching command using regular expression 14.9 Matching characters using character class keywords 14.10 Ampersand Referencing 14.11 Using multiple sed commands 14.12 Back referencing 15 Shell Scripting 15.1 UNIX Decision making 15.1.1 If-elif-else-fi statement 15.1.2 Case-esac statement 15.2 UNIX Loop 15.2.1 While loop 15.2.2 For loop 15.2.3 Select loop 15.2.4 Loop control using break and continue 15.3 The Meta characters (* ? [ ] " $ ; & ( ) | ^ < > new line space tab 15.4 Command Substitution 15.5 Variable Substitution 15.6 Quoting Mechanism (Single, Double, back quotes) 15.7 UNIX I/O redirection 15.7.1 Output redirection 15.7.2 Input Redirection 15.7.3 Here Document 15.7.4 Discard output 15.7.5 Redirection commands 16 Advance UNIX Commands and Utilities 17 Advance Shell Scripting 17.1 UNIX function 17.1.1 Pass parameters to a function 17.1.2 Returning values from functions 17.1.3 Programs using all utilities like grep, tr, sed, awk etc 18 Emailing 19 Necessary Networking Commands 20 UNIX-User administration 20.1 Managing Users and Groups 20.2 Create a group 20.3 Modify a group 20.4 Delete a group 20.5 Create an account 20.6 Modify an account 20.7 Delete an account
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1 The UNIX/Linux OS (Intro) 1.1 What is UNIX? 1.1.1 The kernel 1.1.2 The shell 1.2 Files and processes 1.3 The Directory Structure 1.4 UNIX Architecture 1.5 System Boot up 1.6 Login and logout 1.6.1 Shells 1.7 Who are the users log in? 1.7.1 Get the running processes of logged-in user using w 1.7.2 Get the user name and process of logged in user using who and users command. 1.7.3 Get the username you are currently logged in using whoami 1.7.4 Get the user login history at any time 1.8 Password Management 2 General Purpose Commands and Utilities. 2.1 Man page help 2.2 Commands 2.3 Files and directories 2.4 Manipulating data 2.5 Compressed files 2.6 Getting information 2.7 Network communication 2.8 Messages between users 2.9 Programming Utilities 2.10 Misc commands 3 UNIX File System and File management 3.1 What is UNIX? 3.2 Meta Characters 3.3 Hidden Files 3.4 File Operations (Create, rename, copy, Display content, delete, count words etc) 3.5 Standard UNIX streams (stdin, stdout, stderr) 3.6 Directory, home directory, absolute and relative path, 3.7 Create/remove/change/Renaming directory, Directories (. and ..) 3.8 Unix File Permission Setup 3.9 The Permission Indicators: 3.10 File/Directory Access Modes 3.10.1 1 Read: 3.10.2 2 Write: 3.10.3 3 Execute: 3.11 Changing Permissions: 3.11.1 Using chmod in Symbolic Mode: 3.11.2 Using chmod with Absolute Permissions: 3.11.3 Changing Owners and Groups: 3.11.4 Changing Ownership: 3.11.5 Changing Group Ownership: 3.11.6 SUID and SGID File Permission 3.12 Directory Structure 3.12.1 Navigating file system 3.12.2 The df command 3.12.3 The du command 3.12.4 Mounting the file system 3.12.5 User and group quotes 4 UNIX Environment 4.1 The .profile/.bashrc 4.2 Setting Terminal type 4.3 Setting Path 4.4 PS1 and PS2 Variables 5 vi - Editor 5.1 Operation Modes 5.2 Moving within file 5.3 Control commands 5.4 Editing Files 5.5 Deleting characters 5.6 Copy and Paste commands 5.7 Change commands 5.8 Searching and replacing text 5.9 Set commands 5.10 Running commands 6 File Attributes 7 The Shell 7.1 Shell Basics 7.2 Shell Prompt 7.3 Shell Types 7.4 Shell Scripts 7.5 Shell comments 8 UNIX Variables 8.1 Variable names 8.2 Defining variables 8.3 Accessing Variables 8.4 Read-Only Variables 8.5 Unsetting variables 8.6 Variable types 8.7 Special variables 8.8 Defining Array variables 8.9 Accessing Array values 8.10 Command line arguments 8.11 Special parameters $* and $@ 8.12 Exit status 9 UNIX Operators 9.1 Arithmetic 9.2 Boolean 9.3 Relational 9.4 String 9.5 File Test Operators (c shell and korn shell ) 10 Filters and Pipes 11 The Process 12 Grep & Find 13 Regular Expression 14 Sed and Awk 14.1 The sed- general syntax 14.2 The Sed addresses 14.3 The Sed Address Range 14.4 Substitution command 14.5 Using and alternative string separator 14.6 Replacing with empty spaces 14.7 Address Substitution 14.8 Matching command using regular expression 14.9 Matching characters using character class keywords 14.10 Ampersand Referencing 14.11 Using multiple sed commands 14.12 Back referencing 15 Shell Scripting 15.1 UNIX Decision making 15.1.1 If-elif-else-fi statement 15.1.2 Case-esac statement 15.2 UNIX Loop 15.2.1 While loop 15.2.2 For loop 15.2.3 Select loop 15.2.4 Loop control using break and continue 15.3 The Meta characters (* ? [ ] " $ ; & ( ) | ^ < > new line space tab 15.4 Command Substitution 15.5 Variable Substitution 15.6 Quoting Mechanism (Single, Double, back quotes) 15.7 UNIX I/O redirection 15.7.1 Output redirection 15.7.2 Input Redirection 15.7.3 Here Document 15.7.4 Discard output 15.7.5 Redirection commands 16 Advance UNIX Commands and Utilities 17 Advance Shell Scripting 17.1 UNIX function 17.1.1 Pass parameters to a function 17.1.2 Returning values from functions 17.1.3 Programs using all utilities like grep, tr, sed, awk etc 18 Emailing 19 Necessary Networking Commands 20 UNIX-User administration 20.1 Managing Users and Groups 20.2 Create a group 20.3 Modify a group 20.4 Delete a group 20.5 Create an account 20.6 Modify an account 20.7 Delete an account
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1 The UNIX/Linux OS (Intro) 1.1 What is UNIX? 1.1.1 The kernel 1.1.2 The shell 1.2 Files and processes 1.3 The Directory Structure 1.4 UNIX Architecture 1.5 System Boot up 1.6 Login and logout 1.6.1 Shells 1.7 Who are the users log in? 1.7.1 Get the running processes of logged-in user using w 1.7.2 Get the user name and process of logged in user using who and users command. 1.7.3 Get the username you are currently logged in using whoami 1.7.4 Get the user login history at any time 1.8 Password Management 2 General Purpose Commands and Utilities. 2.1 Man page help 2.2 Commands 2.3 Files and directories 2.4 Manipulating data 2.5 Compressed files 2.6 Getting information 2.7 Network communication 2.8 Messages between users 2.9 Programming Utilities 2.10 Misc commands 3 UNIX File System and File management 3.1 What is UNIX? 3.2 Meta Characters 3.3 Hidden Files 3.4 File Operations (Create, rename, copy, Display content, delete, count words etc) 3.5 Standard UNIX streams (stdin, stdout, stderr) 3.6 Directory, home directory, absolute and relative path, 3.7 Create/remove/change/Renaming directory, Directories (. and ..) 3.8 Unix File Permission Setup 3.9 The Permission Indicators: 3.10 File/Directory Access Modes 3.10.1 1 Read: 3.10.2 2 Write: 3.10.3 3 Execute: 3.11 Changing Permissions: 3.11.1 Using chmod in Symbolic Mode: 3.11.2 Using chmod with Absolute Permissions: 3.11.3 Changing Owners and Groups: 3.11.4 Changing Ownership: 3.11.5 Changing Group Ownership: 3.11.6 SUID and SGID File Permission 3.12 Directory Structure 3.12.1 Navigating file system 3.12.2 The df command 3.12.3 The du command 3.12.4 Mounting the file system 3.12.5 User and group quotes 4 UNIX Environment 4.1 The .profile/.bashrc 4.2 Setting Terminal type 4.3 Setting Path 4.4 PS1 and PS2 Variables 5 vi - Editor 5.1 Operation Modes 5.2 Moving within file 5.3 Control commands 5.4 Editing Files 5.5 Deleting characters 5.6 Copy and Paste commands 5.7 Change commands 5.8 Searching and replacing text 5.9 Set commands 5.10 Running commands 6 File Attributes 7 The Shell 7.1 Shell Basics 7.2 Shell Prompt 7.3 Shell Types 7.4 Shell Scripts 7.5 Shell comments 8 UNIX Variables 8.1 Variable names 8.2 Defining variables 8.3 Accessing Variables 8.4 Read-Only Variables 8.5 Unsetting variables 8.6 Variable types 8.7 Special variables 8.8 Defining Array variables 8.9 Accessing Array values 8.10 Command line arguments 8.11 Special parameters $* and $@ 8.12 Exit status 9 UNIX Operators 9.1 Arithmetic 9.2 Boolean 9.3 Relational 9.4 String 9.5 File Test Operators (c shell and korn shell ) 10 Filters and Pipes 11 The Process 12 Grep & Find 13 Regular Expression 14 Sed and Awk 14.1 The sed- general syntax 14.2 The Sed addresses 14.3 The Sed Address Range 14.4 Substitution command 14.5 Using and alternative string separator 14.6 Replacing with empty spaces 14.7 Address Substitution 14.8 Matching command using regular expression 14.9 Matching characters using character class keywords 14.10 Ampersand Referencing 14.11 Using multiple sed commands 14.12 Back referencing 15 Shell Scripting 15.1 UNIX Decision making 15.1.1 If-elif-else-fi statement 15.1.2 Case-esac statement 15.2 UNIX Loop 15.2.1 While loop 15.2.2 For loop 15.2.3 Select loop 15.2.4 Loop control using break and continue 15.3 The Meta characters (* ? [ ] " $ ; & ( ) | ^ < > new line space tab 15.4 Command Substitution 15.5 Variable Substitution 15.6 Quoting Mechanism (Single, Double, back quotes) 15.7 UNIX I/O redirection 15.7.1 Output redirection 15.7.2 Input Redirection 15.7.3 Here Document 15.7.4 Discard output 15.7.5 Redirection commands 16 Advance UNIX Commands and Utilities 17 Advance Shell Scripting 17.1 UNIX function 17.1.1 Pass parameters to a function 17.1.2 Returning values from functions 17.1.3 Programs using all utilities like grep, tr, sed, awk etc 18 Emailing 19 Necessary Networking Commands 20 UNIX-User administration 20.1 Managing Users and Groups 20.2 Create a group 20.3 Modify a group 20.4 Delete a group 20.5 Create an account 20.6 Modify an account 20.7 Delete an account
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BiswaRanjan Dalai (hadapsar Pune on 06-Jul-2018 )
AutoCAD peofessional training duration - please inform. - cad-cam-cae training in pune (hadapsar)
 


 

 

 

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